Statistics Relative to Nova Scotia in 1851


“The constitution of Nova Scotia is a representative provincial government. The Lieutenant-Governor, who is subordinate to the Governor-General of British North America, is commander within the province; and the supreme civil as well as military authority under him, is a council of twelve members, of whom the bishop and chief justice are members ex officio, and the rest appointed by the Crown. The legislative assembly consists of a body of forty-one members, elected by 40s. freeholders. It is elected, like the British House of Commons, for seven years, but may be prorogued or dissolved by the Lieutenant-Governor. It meets every year, and all money bills must originate in this assembly; other bills require the consent of the Governor and council before they become law. For the purposes of election, Nova Scotia is divided into ten counties. The counties have two members each, and the other representatives are returned by the towns. Justice is administered by a Court of Queen’s Bench, sitting at Halifax, and by district courts in the different counties. The common and statute law of England are in force. The laws are, on the whole, considered judicious, and, as far as they go, calculated to promote the prosperity of the colony, but the harmony of society is too often broken by a love of litigation.”

“Church of England is the established religion, and in 1838 the colony was divided into thirty-two parishes, each of which had a rector salaried by the Crown, or by the society for the propagation of the gospel. Nova Scotia was made a bishopric in 1787, the diocese extending over New Brunswick and Prince Edward’s Island, Newfoundland and the Bermudas.”

Census of the Province of Nova Scotian in 1851

Under 1010 to 2020 to 3030 to 4040 to 50Above 50Total
Table I: Census of the Province of Nova Scotian in 1851

Condition of the People

Boys (under 10)44,000Girls (under 10)43,452
Table II: Condition of the People

Occupation, Pursuit, or Calling of a large proportion of the inhabitants

Lawyers143Engaged in the fisheries9,927
Doctors145Registered seamen1,413
Merchants and traders2,415Employed at sea3,961
Employed in manufactories3,200Engaged in lumbering1,254
Table III: Occupation, Pursuit, or Calling of a large proportion of the inhabitants

Blind, Deaf and Dumb, Idiots and Lunatics

BlindDeaf and DumbIdiotsLunaticsTotal
Table IV: Blind, Deaf and Dumb, Idiots and Lunatics

[indigenous persons] and black Persons]

[indigenous persons]black Persons]Total
Table V: [indigenous persons] and black Persons]

Crops, Grain and otherwise

Wheat297,157bushelsPeas and beans21,638bushels
Barley196,097bushelsGrass seeds3,686bushels
Buck-wheat170,301bushelsOther roots32,325bushels
Indian corn37,475bushelsHay287,837tons
Table VI: Crops, Grain and otherwise

Live stock

Neat Cattle156,857Swine51,533
Milch Cows85,856
Table VII: Live stock

Fisheries in 1851

Vessels employed812Quantity of fish oil189,250*
Tonnage43,333Value of ditto in £17,754
Men3,681Quantity of dry fish cured196,434*
Boats employed5,161Salmon in barrels1,669
Quantity of smoked herrings15,409*Mackerel100,047
Value of ditto in £217,270Herrings53,200
Nets and seines30,154Alewives5,343
* In the returns there is nothing to show what these numbers indicate
Table VIII: Fisheries in 1851

Coals, Lime, Bricks and Gypsum

Coal raised, in chaldrons114,992Gypsum quarried, in tons79,795
Baskets of lime burnt28,603Value of ditto in £10,498
Value of ditto in £4,433Grindstones quarried , in tons37,540
Bricks made2,845,400Value of ditto in £5,857
Value of ditto in £3,211
Table IX: Coals, Lime, Bricks and Gypsum


Mills, Factories, &c.NumberValue in £Hands employed
Saw mills1,15389,8691,786
Grist mills39872,649437
Steam mills or factories10
Weaving and carding establishments8111,690119
Hand looms11,09624,486
Breweries and distilleries176,03242
Other factories13114,382185
Table X: Manufactories
Iron smeltedin tons400Agricultural implementsvalue in £
Value of dittoin £
4,635Charis and cabinet warevalue in £11,155
Value of castingsin £3,486Carriagesvalue in £9,491
Flannelin yds.219,352Other wooden warevalue in £19,233
Fulled clothin yds.119,698Boots and shoesvalue in £73,654
Cloth not fulledin yds.790,104Leathervalue in £52,625
Malt liquorin galls.78,076Soap value in £28,277
Distilled liquorin galls.11,900Candlesvalue in £21,210
Maple sugarin lbs.110,441
Manufactories, continued


CountiesEntered InwardsCleared Outwards
Great Britain9727,88610229,739
British Colonies2,517149,6312,815179,712
United States1,211136,5801,266139,427
Table XI: Shipping

Religious Denominations

Church of England36,482Methodists23,596
Roman Catholics69,634Copngregationalists2,639
Kirk of Scotland18,867Universalists580
Presbyterian Church of Nova Scotia28,767Lutherans4,087
Free Church25,280Sandemanians101
Other denominations3,791
Table XII: Religious Denominations

Houses, Buildings, &c.

Inhabited houses41,455Paupers1,072
Families45,541Rate payers38,388
Uninhabited houses2,028Probable value of real estate in £8,050,923
Houses building2,347
Stores, barns, and outhouses52,758
Table XIII: Houses, Buildings, &c.

Cheshire, Edward. “Statistics Relative to Nova Scotia in 1851.” Journal of the Statistical Society of London, vol. 17, no. 1, 1854, pp. 73–80. JSTOR, Accessed 9 June 2021.

Census, Township of Dartmouth, 1861


Dartmouth: 1478 Males, 1668 Females, Total population 3,155.

Number of families: 559, 492 Married, 1057 Single, 119 Widows.

Deaf: M: 2, Blind: M: 2, F: 1.

Cannot Read Above 15 years of Age: M: 214, F: 246

Cannot Write Above 15 years of Age: M: 228, F: 287

[black] persons included in population: 197

[Mi’kmaq] not included in population: 34

By Origin: Dartmouth: Total Population: 3155, “Natives”: 2628, England: 107, Wales: 2, Scotland: 78, Ireland: 205, Guernsey: 1, Jersey: 4, Canada: 13, New Brunswick: 29, Newfoundland: 18, Prince Edward Island: 2, West Indies: 10, United States of America: 45, France: 1, Italy: 1, Other peoples in the Mediterranean: 7, Germany: 2, East Indies: 1, All other places: 1.

By Religion: Church of England: 1115, Church of Rome: 807, Church of Scotland: 118, Presbyterian Church of L.P.: 414, Baptists: 408, Wesleyan Methodists: 168, Congregationalists: 8, Universalists: 98, Sandemanians: 10, Bible Christians: 7, Mormons: 2

Causes of Death: Diphtheria: 2, Disease of the Brain: 2, Brochitis: 1, Consumption: 2, Inflammation of Bowels: 3, Teething: 1.

Return of Agricultural Produce, Stock, Fisheries, &c: Acres Dyke Marsh: 4, Value in Dollars: $64, Salt Marsh Acres: 37, Value in Dollars: $788, Cultivated Intervale acres: 28, Value in dollars, $2800, Cultivated Upland: 1166 Acres, Value in Dollars: $88504, Tons of hay cut: 1211, Busels of wheat: 101, Bushels of barley: 1338, Bushels of rye: 10, Bushels of oats: 2110, Bushels of Buckwheat: 44, Bushels Indian Corn: 22, Bushels Peas and Beans: 89, Bushels Potatoes: 8435, Bushels turnips: 7280, Bushels other roots: 1307, Bushels apples: 93, Neat cattle exclusive of cows: 241, Milk cows: 439, Horses: 180, Sheep: 333, Pigs: 137, Hand Looms: 3, Not fulled yards made: 722, Butter lbs made: 11505, Bricks made M: 150, Value: $900, Boats engaged in fisheries: 2, Number of Nets: 15, Barrels of Mackerel: 20, Barrels Herring: 25, Gallons of Fish Oil: 8, Value of Leather Manufactured: $19500, Carriages made: 12, Bush. Lime burnt: 25000, Boats built: 20, M. feet spruce and hemlock boards: 5, M. Staves: 3.

Return of Mills and Manufactures: No. of mills: 6, Propelled by water: 5, Propelled by wind: 1, No. of hands employed: 9, Value: $16000, No. of saw mills: 1, Propelled by water: 1, No. of hands employed: 2, Value: $400,

Nova Scotia. Board of Statistics. Report of the Secretary of the Board of Statistics On the Census of Nova Scotia, 1861 [and Appendices] … Halifax: Printed by order of the government, 1862.

Census, Township of Dartmouth, 1767

1767 Census

Dartmouth Township:

Numbers in each family: 19 men, 7 boys, 1 [black] man, 11 women, 1 girl.

Total persons in the township: 39.

Religion: 30 Protestant, 9 Roman Catholic. Country: 13 English, 9 Irish, 8 Americans, 9 German & other foreigners.

Stock and Substance: 14 horses, 1 Oxen & bulls, 6 cows, 2 young neat cattle, 4 swine.

Produce of the last year: 40 bushels of oats.

Alteration of inhabitants since last year: 2 males, 3 females, 5 total born in the past year. 1 male died. 1 male, 1 female arrived.

“A General Return of the several Townships in the Province of Nova Scotia the first day of January 1767”

History of Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, the Sable Islands, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, the Bermudas, Newfoundland, &c., &c.


“The territorial distribution of the Nova Scotia government is – 1. Eastern division, 2. Middle; 3. Western; 4. Halifax; 5. Cape Breton; there are ten counties, some of which are again subdivided into districts and townships for the more convenient administration of justice. The only counties divided into districts are, Halifax into three, viz. Halifax, Colchester, and Pictou; and Sydney into Lower and Upper.

The townships are not all of equal extent, nor of equal number in each county, viz. in Halifax there are Halifax, Dartmouth, Preston, and Lawrence Town (in Halifax District)…”

“Halifax division, containing part of the county of the same name, and the townships of Haliax, Dartmouth, Preston and Lawrence Town, is thus presented in the last census:


“Dartmouth: 960 mouths, 504 acres, 74 Wheat bushels, 921 other grain bushels, 8480 potatoes bushels, 301 hay tons, 111 horses, 195 horned cattle, 162 sheep, 130 swine.”

“The naval capital of British North America, Halifax, has been before described, and Dartmouth requires no separate account”

Martin, Robert Montgomery, 1803?-1868. History of Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, the Sable Islands, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, the Bermudas, Newfoundland, &c., &c.. London: Whittaker & co., 1837.

Lovell’s Province of Nova Scotia directory for 1871


“Dartmouth – A flourishing and beautiful village, opposite Halifax, at the head of the harbor, township of Dartmouth, county of Halifax. A steam ferry plies between here and the city. Dartmouth boasts of many fine buildings, contains several large foundries, three steam tanneries, employing a large number of men, and the residences of a number of merchants and others doing business in the city. The Provincial Lunatic asylum is half a mile from the village. Dartmouth is the proposed terminus of the Intercolonial railway. Montague Gold mines about 4 miles in the interior are being worked with great activity; according to the Gold Commissioners report for 1869, the total yield for that year was 805 ozs, valued at $16,100, average yield per ton 1 oz. 9 dwts., maximum yield per ton 3 oz. 9 dwts., average covering per man $430. Distant from Halifax, the terminus of the Nova Scotia railway, half a mile, fare 5c.; from Pictou 114 miles. Mail daily. Population about 2500.”

Lovell’s Province of Nova Scotia directory for 1871, Montreal : Printed and Published by John Lovell, [1871?]

Dartmouth census, 1752

census 1752

“A list of the families in part of Nova Scotia, dated Halifax, July, 1752, states that there were within the town of Dartmouth: 53 families, 81 males above sixteen, 47 females above 16, 29 males under 16, 38 females under 16; Total (population) 193.”

Nova Scotia. Commissioner of public records, Benjamin Curren, and Thomas B. Akins. Selections From the Public Documents of the Province of Nova Scotia. Halifax, N. S.: C. Annand, 1869. (p 670)

Dartmouth Business Directory, 1864



Hon. J.W. Johnston, Judge in Equity
Hon. Joseph Howe, Commissioner of Fisheries
Lawrence Hartshorne, City Treasurer
Col. Sinclair, A.G.M.
James H. Thorne, Dep. Prov. Sec. and Chief Clerk

Rev. John B. Woods, St. Peter’s Church
Rev. O. M. Grindon, English Church

J.W. Johnston, Junr, Office, Halifax
Alexander James, Office, Halifax
J. G. Foster, Office, Halifax

T.B. Des Brisay, M.D., corner of King and Quarrel sts
R.S. Campbell, M.D., {Dealer in Patent Medicines, Paints, Oils, &c.
L.E. Van Buskirk, M.D.
W.H. Weeks, King Street

Allan, J.W, Grocer and Dealer in Lumber
Brown, J.C, {General Dealer in Groceries and Liquors, &c.
Bettinsen, J, Groceries and Boarding House
Elliott, J.B., & Co, Dealers in Dry Goods
Elliot, Wm, {Soap and Candle Manufactory, and General Dealer in Groceries and Country Produce
Elliott, J, & Son, {Dealers in all kinds of Building Materials; and. Carpenters and Builders Plans and Estimates furníshed
Farrell, D, Dealer in Groceries and Lumber
Fuller, J.A, {Of the firm of J. B. Eliott & Co., Granville street, Halifax, Dealers in Dry Goods
Hyde, T.A., {General Dealer in Groceries and Country Produce
Mott, J.P., {Manufacturer and Dealer in Soap and Spices
Russell, N., & Co.. Tinsmiths and Stove Dealers
Richards, E, General Grocer
Symonds, W. S., & Co., Dartmouth Iron Foundry
Sterns, Luther, {Dealer in Dry Goods, Boots, Shoes, Clothing, &c.
Silver, W. & C., {Dealers in Dry Goods, Granville street, Halifax
Tapper, J.R., Groceries and Liquor Store
Walker, E.M., {General Dealer in Groceries and Country Produce
Ross, Mrs. C., General Dealer in Groceries, Liquors, &c.

Bradey, J., Carpenter
Bell, Charles, Blacksmith at Starr’s Factory
Fultz, F., House Joiner and Carriage Builder
Graham, G., Ship and House Carpenter
Gates, J.M., Carpenter
Innes, R., House Carpenter
Kingston, G.C., Wheelwright and Carriage Builder
Low, James, Ship Carpenter
Murray, H., Wheelwright and Carriage Builder
Ormon, J.R., Carpenter
Readdy, T., House Carpenter
Richard, E., Carpenter
Sawler, W., Wheelwright
Sawler, G.,Wheelwright
Vienow, E., Carpenter
Warner, E., Shipwright
York, Stephen, Coachmaker
Young, F., Shipbuilder and Repairer
Adams, George {Machinist; Machinery made and repaired
Mumford, F. {Manufacturer of Edge and Mining Tools, &c.

Allan, Frazier, Shoemaker
Gammon, W.A., Shoemaker
Grey, Robert, Shoemaker
Miller, E.H., Shoemaker
Yetter, H., Shoemaker

Bell, G., Farmer
Bissett, Farmer
Bowes, Farmer, Entrance Harbour
Bissett, J.G., Farmer
Beck, C.W., Farmer
Brennan, S.J., Farmer
Bell, Alexander, Farmer
Cooper, James, Farmer
Chittick, S., Farmer
Clifford H., Farmer
Conrod, J., Farmer (Cole Harbor)
Conrod, George, Farmer and Fisherman
Donovan, J, Farmer
Eisner, D., Farmer and Miller
Eisner, E., Farmer and Lumberman
Fisher, T., Farmer
Farquharson, A.J.P., Farmer
Farquharson, J., Farmer
Farquharson, P., Farmer
Gaston, J., Farmer
Green, W., Farmer
Hoskin, J. Farmer
Jones, I.C., Farmer
Kuhn, A., Farmer
Kennedy, P., Farmer
Mott, H.G. “J.P.”, Farmer
Manley, J., Farmer
Morash, H., Farmer
Morash, L., Farmer
McIntosh, W., Farmer
McNab, P., Junr., Farmer
O’Connor, J. Junr., Farmer
Osborne, J, Farmer, Red Head
Ritchie, T., Farmer
Ross, J., Farmer
Settle, R., Farmer
Smith, A.W., Farmer
Short, T., Farmer
Tulloch, A., Farmer
Wilson, J., Farmer
Whynock, B., Farmer and Fisherman
Wright, Henry, Farmer

Allen, R.A., {Tanner and Currier, and Dresser of Belting and Lacing
Adams, G., Machinist; Machinery made and repaired
Belcher, C.H., Water Street
Campbell, J.S., Boat Builder
Crosse, Captain , th Regt
Connors, George, Boat Builder
Crichton, G.A.S.
Dickson, R.D., Engineer, Hospital for Insane
Dart, C., Mason
Falconer, D.
Frazer, H.R., Engineer, Marine Railway
Faulkner, R., Machinist and Nailer
Fish, William
Fultz, Mrs. C.R.
Forbes, J., Superintendent at Starr’s Factory
Graham, J.R., Meat Market (Steamboat Hill)
Glendinning, H.W., {Soda Water, Ginger Beer, Lemonade Manufacturer, and Dealer in Ice
Gillard, John, Mason and Builder
Harvey, H.E., Quarrell street
Kimball, D.D, Foreman in Symonds’ Iron Foundry
Keating, W., House Builder
Laidlaw, Peter, Dealer in Ice, Canal road
Mackenzie, G. H., Steamboat Agent
Mott, T., Brickmaker and Dealer in Spices
McKinnea, Shipbuilder
Mumford, F., {Manutacturer of Edge and Mining Tools and General Blacksmith work
Mclnnes, A., Ticket Office Steamboat Company
McBain, J.C. Porto Bello
Major, Mrs. C.
Manning, Captain
Marshall, Mrs. J., Porto Bello House, Lake William
Major, Montague
McGilvrey, J., Montague
McLean, D., Town Clerk
Murray, W., Tinsmith (firm of N. Russell & Co.)
Nowling, E, Innkeeper and Dealer in Liquors
Parker, J., Painter and Glazier
Runt, J, Ballastman
Ross, Mrs, C., General Dealer in Groceries, Liquors, &c.
Rouselle, J.K., Teacher
Teas, W., Teacher
Tufts, Henry, Waterman, Tuft’s Cove
Thickens, George, Montague
Turner, J.W., Tanner
Whitley, J., Butcher
Whidden, J., Sashmaker and Grocer
Warner, R., Employed at the Marine Railway
Western, E.S., Superintendent of Marine Railway
Walker, W. G., Innkeeper, Little Salmon River
Young, George, Shipbuilder

From: Topographical township map of Halifax County, Nova Scotia / from actual surveys made, drawn, & engraved by and under the direction of H.F. Walling. Map of Nova Scotia and adjacent provinces, Creator: Walling, Henry Francis, 1825-1888, Publication Date: 1864, Map Publisher: A.F. Church and Co.

Population Shifts in the Maritime Provinces

“THE first enumeration of the people in what is now the Dominion of Canada was made at Port Royal in 1605 by De Monts’s band of settlers. The returns of this census are still extant. Not until 1671, however, was the first regular census taken in Acadia, showing a population of 441”

“At the time of Confederation the Maritime Provinces were almost entirely rural. St. John and Halifax had populations considerably over twenty thousand; Charlottetown had eight thousand; while Fredericton had six thousand. There were no other towns with over three thousand inhabitants, and only Truro, Dartmouth, Windsor, Pictou, Liverpool, and Yarmouth in Nova Scotia, and Woodstock in New Brunswick, had populations between two and three thousand.”

Grant, J.W. “Population Shifts in the Maritime Provinces”
Dalhousie Review, Volume 17, Number 3, 1937

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