Bards & Co’s business and professional directory [Dartmouth, N.S.] 1900

DARTMOUTH, N.S., BUSINESS DIRECTORY

Acadia Roller Mills

Allen John, boots and shoes, Water

Allen J W, stationery, 70 Portland

Atkinson Geo, grocery, 62 Portland

Atlantic Mineral Water Co, Water

Atlantic Weekly, Water

Baker Wm, boarding, baiting and livery stable, 24 Ochterloney

Bell Isaac, dry goods, Portland

Bertram Stubbs O, photo, Portland

Bowes E M, painter, 96 Portland

Bowser B & A, flour, feed, etc, 151-3 Portland

Casey J A, grocery, Portland

Conrad Jabez, livery stable, 120 Portland, ‘phone 34

Conrod John, blacksmith and horseshoer, Portland

Conrod S M, meat market, 86 Portland

De Wolfe G C & Son, grocery, 33 Ochterloney

Dares F Q, grocery, prov, feed, etc, 80 Portland

Dares S B, hardware, lumber, painting, oils and glass, 217 Portland

Donovan Mrs E, grocery, 142 Portland

Douglas & Co, gin foundry

Earle George J, mer tailor, 45 Portland

Eisener A, victualler. Water, cor Queen

Forsyth Andrew, grocery, cor Water, and Church

Forsyth Bros, grocery, prov, etc. Water

Forsyth Jr, grocery and china. Water

Gay & McLean, painters and decorators, 143 Portland

Gentles T & Sons, grocery and baking, 63-71 Ochterloney

Graham J R, meat market, Portland, also Water

Greene John, watchmaker and jeweller, 59 Portland

Hutchinson A, mason and builder, 250 Ochterloney

Hutt A, blacksmith, Portland Laidlaw R, fruit, 90 Portland

Layers W G, boarding and livery stable, 35 Ochterloney

Leslie J G, grocery, 190 Portland

Lloy Alexander, grocery and produce, 176-78 Portland

McCarthy Owen, dry goods and millinery, 74 Portland

McHanna Peter, undertaker and casket mnfr, Wilson

McNab Colin & Co, grocery, fruit and feed, Portland cor Prince

McNabb J A, dry goods, 132 Portland

Maclean J B, grocery, feed, etc, 67 Portland

Misener G A, estate of Fenwick G Misener, prop, undertaker, Portland

Misener & Merson, carpenters, Portland

Moseley W P & Co, grocery, 92 Water

Ormon G A, fine groceries, flour, fruit, teas, etc, Portland, cor King

Pereril, C E, yictualer. Water

Power J & Co, carriage and express builder, repairing and blacksmithing, 115-19 Portland

Richards G, livery, Portland

Ritchie John, plumber, tinner, stoves, etc, 180 Portland

Russell N & Co, stoves and tinware, 179 Portland

Sellers H W, boots and shoes, 92 Portland

Settle H H, horse shoer and general blacksmith, Portland

Simmonds Jas & Co, hardware, Water

Simpson S, harness, Portland

Smith W McV, harness, 95 Portland

Starr Mfg Co The Ltd, mnfr of skates, ry and ship spikes, bolts, nuts, washers, electroplating, canners’ dies, gen machine works, etc, Dartmouth

Sterns G A, druggist, 48 Ochterloney

Stevens W H, drugs, 87 Portland

Sutherland Bros, grocery, Portland

Thomson Samuel, grocery, 22-24 Portland

Tuttle W L, boots and shoes, 56 Portland

Union Bank Of Halifax, F O Robertson, mgr, 42 Water

Walker E M, grocery, 52 Ochterloney

Walker H C & Co, men’s furnishings, hats, caps, etc, 46 Portland

Walker H C, grocery and furniture, 51 Portland

Wamboldt R L, fish market. Water

Warner E, coal and wood, Ferry wharf

Wisdom A, dry goods, Portland

Bards & Co. “Bards & Co’s business and professional directory: of Halifax, Amherst, Charlottetown, Dartmouth, Chatham, Fredericton, Kentville, Moncton, New Glasgow, Sydney, N. Sydney, Pictou, Quebec, St. John, St. Stephen, Summerside, Yarmouth, Woodstock, Truro, Windsor, etc. : embracing a list of all business and professional men in the cities above named for the year 1900” New York; Toronto : Bards & Co. https://archive.org/details/cihm_08249

McAlpine’s Halifax City Directories, 1900 – 1901

Boat Builders
  • Debay, John, Dartmouth
  • Devan, James. Dartmouth
  • Mader, .Joshua, Dartmouth
  • Moseley, Eben, Dartmouth
  • Moseley, Henry, Moseley’s wharf, Dart
  • Williams, Edward, Dartmouth
Builders and Contractors
  • Webber, J A, Dartmouth
Electro Platers
  • Starr Manufacturing Co., Dartmouth
Fancy Goods
  • Stevens, W H, Dartmouth
Flour Dealers
  • Acadia Roller Mills, Dartmouth
Gents’ Furnishings
  • Sterns, L & Son, Dartmouth
Furnaces and Ranges
  • Hitchie, ,J. &, Co, 180 Portland, Dart
  • Russell, N & Son, Dartmouth
Grocers and Retailers
  • McNab, Colin, Dartmouth
  • Moseley, W. P. and Co, Dartmouth
  • Walker, E M Dartmouth
Hay and Feed Dealers
  • McNab, Colin, Dartmouth
Ice Dealers
  • Carter, Job, Dartmouth
  • Chittick, & Sons, Dartmouth
  • Hutchinson, A Dartmouth
  • Hunt, John A, Dartmouth
  • Otto, P J, Dartmouth
  • Whitely, Jas. Dartmouth
Iron Founders
  • Dartmouth Iron Foundry. Dartmouth
  • Douglas &. Co, Dartmouth
Kitchen Utensils
  • Russell, N & Co Dartmouth
Livery and Boarding and Hack Stables
  • Greene, Mrs Wm H, Dartmouth
  • Lavers, W G, 37 Ochterloney, Dart
Machinists
  • Starr, Manfg Co., Dartmouth.
Machinists Supplies
  • Starr, Manfg Co., Dartmouth.
Milkmen
  • Lydiard, Samuel. Dartmouth
Millers
  • Crawthorne’s Mill, Dartmouth
  • Matheson, R. J., Dartmouth [road].
Milliners
  • Stearns, L. and Son, Dartmouth
Mineral Waters
  • Atlantic Mineral Water Works, Dartmouth
Mining and Mill Supplies
  • Starr Mfg Co., Dartmouth.
Nail and Tack Manufacturers
  • Starr Mfg. Co. Ltd., Dartmouth.
Newspapers
  • Atlantic Weekly, Water, Dartmouth
Oils and Paints
  • Dominion Paint Co. Dartmouth
Paint & Putty Manufacturers
  • Dominion Paint Works. Dartmouth
Produce and Provision Dealers
  • Graham, .John R. Dartmouth
Railway & Engineer Supplies
  • Starr Mfg. Co. Ltd., Dartmouth.
Railway Spikes
  • Starr Mfg. Co. Ltd., Dartmouth.
Rolling Mill
  • Dartmouth Rolling Mill Co, Dartmouth
Ship Builders
  • Moseley, Henry. Dartmouth
  • Young, J & G. Dartmouth
Silver and Gold Works
  • Starr Mfg. Co. Ltd., Dartmouth.
Skate Manufacturers
  • Starr Mfg. Co. Ltd., Dartmouth.
Soda Water Manufacturers
  • Atlantic Mineral Water Works, Dartmouth
Stoves & Ranges
  • Russell, N & Son. Dartmouth
Sugar Refineries
  • Nova Scotia Sugar Refinery, Ltd., Office Hollis at Duke; refineries Halifax and Dartmouth
Tinsmiths, Plumbers and Gasfitters
  • Ritchie, J & Co, Dartmouth
  • Russell, N & Co, Dartmouth
Undertakers
  • Dartmouth Undertaking Co, Dartmouth
Variety
  • Graham, John R. Dartmouth
Wood and Coal Dealers
  • Warner, Edward. Dartmouth

Town of Dartmouth

Dartmouth Directory

McAlpine’s Halifax City Directories, 1900 – 1901. https://archives.novascotia.ca/pdf/mcalpine/1900-1901-McAlpine-Halifax.pdf

Dominion Disallowance of Provincial Legislation in Canada

Federal disallowance of Provincial Legislation has been a significant aspect of the Canada’s system of “federalism”, allowing the central government to nullify provincial acts deemed contrary to federal interests. This power, unique to Canada, contrasts with the American federal system, reflecting a “differing approach” to federalism. From 1867 to 1935, the Dominion government disallowed at least 114 provincial acts and territorial ordinances, highlighting its considerable powers over provincial legislation.

The process of disallowance involved the submission of provincial acts to the governor-general, with the governor-general in council having the authority to disallow them, typically based on recommendations from the Ministry of Justice, in the same way colonies previous to Confederation would submit their legislation through Lieutenant Governors to the Crown. Disallowance had to occur within one year of receiving the act. While the British government couldn’t directly interfere with provincial acts after confederation, it could express its concerns to the Dominion government instead, as could other foreign governments.

The reasons for disallowance varied widely, including conflicts with federal legislation, exceeding provincial powers outlined in the British North America Act, violation of treaty rights, or infringement on individual rights and property. The subjects of disallowed acts ranged from immigration and banking to mining and liquor regulation, indicating the Dominion’s broad oversight.

Historically, the frequency of disallowance fluctuated, with peaks in the late 19th and early 20th centuries followed by a decline in recent years. Initially, the crown and its Federal government, themselves involved in a parent-child relationship, viewed a strong central government as necessary, akin to a parent-child relationship with provinces. Where that leaves “the people” is clear.

Evolving interpretations of “Canadian federalism” have more recently emphasized provincial rights and autonomy, more in keeping with the American meaning of the term. Decisions by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council and advocacy for provincial rights led to a shift in attitudes toward disallowance. Provinces began to assert their legislative independence, advocating for minimal federal interference. By the early 20th century, calls for disallowance were expected to be justified by clear attempts to infringe on federal jurisdiction. Whether this power is still exercised today, on the down low, with the only outward evidence of such actions being a bill dying on the order paper, is unclear.


“Although there is a federal form of government in both the Dominion of Canada. and the United States, there are striking differences in the two types of federalism. Some of these differences are to be found in fundamentals, such as the basis upon which the powers of government are divided in the two countries. Less striking, but nevertheless significant, are still other points of variance. Among these is the power which the dominion government has to disallow legislative acts of the provinces. Just why the fathers of the Canadian federation thought this power should be given to the central government is not clear. The fact remains, however, that in the years from 1867 to 1935, at least 114 provincial acts and territorial ordinances were set aside. It is important to note that these acts were dis- allowed by executive officers of the dominion government. Executive officers of the national government in the United States do not possess similar powers where state legislation is concerned.”

“A survey of the law-making efforts of provincial legislatures which have been set aside by the dominion government indicates that the central government has interfered with some of the most important fields in which provincial legislation might be enacted.”

“The frequency with which the dominion’s power of disallowance has been used has varied considerably at different periods in Canada’s history. In the years from 1867 through 1895, no less than 72 acts and ordinances were set aside. In the years from 1896 through 1920, a period of almost equal length, 37 provincial acts and ordinances were annulled. From 1920 to 1935, only five acts passed by provincial legislatures fell before the disapproval of the dominion government. In the first period mentioned, the greatest number of acts to be disallowed in one province was 26, in Manitoba. British Columbia, with 20, was a close second. Seven ordinances (as distinct from legislative acts) were set aside in the Northwest Territory, while in Ontario and Nova Scotia six acts in each province were disallowed. The remainder of the 72 can be accounted for by the disallowance of four statutes in Quebec, two in Prince Edward Island, and one in New Brunswick. In the second period, British Columbia headed the list with 22, while Manitoba and Saskatchewan had three each. Ontario and Quebec each had one act annulled. Seven ordinances were set aside, five in the Yukon Territory and two in the Northwest Territory. Since 1920, legislative acts in only three provinces have been disallowed. Three were annulled in Nova Scotia and one each in Alberta and British Columbia.”

“To many Americans, it is, of course, striking that the central government in a federation should possess this degree of control over certain types of legislation enacted by the member units in that federal organization. In the Canada of 1864-66, however, there were many who, like J. A. Macdonald, wished to see a strong central government created. They believed that the war between the states to the south of them was due, in part, to weakness at the center. That the dominion government should be able to disallow provincial legislation did not seem strange to them.”

Heneman, H. J. (1937). Dominion Disallowance of Provincial Legislation in Canada. The American Political Science Review, 31(1), 92–96. https://doi.org/10.2307/1948049

Green Lane, Old Ferry Road, Lawrencetown Road

old ferry road

Here is one of, if not the earliest plans available showing Old Ferry Road as far as Cole Harbour (at left), which was originally known as the road to Lawrencetown. Now, Old Ferry Road, Portland Street and Cole Harbour Road. A few modern features added at right to give context. More on this road as it traversed through Woodlawn in the 1780s and 1820s.

The initial construction of this road, at least the part beyond the hill according to Martin, is noted in the Halifax Gazette on June 8th, 1754:

Thursday the 16th past, the Settlers of Lawrence Town set out from this Town in order to go by Land for that Place, having a strong Guard of 200 Regular Troops, exclusive of Officers, commanded by Capt. Stone, with a Number of Rangers; which Place they arrived at the Saturday following, having made a Road from Dartmouth Side to the said Town, which is but little more than 11 Miles distance from us…

From The Story of Dartmouth, by John P. Martin:

Old Ferry Inn. Farmers stabled horses here, and sailed to Halifax with produce. Road in foreground extended easterly to the Passage. This sketch was made about 1820.

This is the lower part of Old Ferry Road, once known as “Green Lane” The curve in the foreground leads to the Old Ferry Wharf. The fence on the left encloses the South End Lawn Tennis Courts, and from there to the shore stood Regal willow trees. Two of them were named for King George III and Queen Charlotte, and two others for Mr. and Mrs. James Creighton of “Brooklands” who had them planted perhaps in the late 1700’s. When this picture was taken about 1900, they were of an enormous size. The whole road was a beautiful shady walk from the wharf all the way up to the present Portland Street.

The fence on the right borders Dr. Parker’s fields at “Beechwood”, and ran along near the location of the new house at 71 Newcastle Street.

The route of the obliterated road to the shore is identified by manholes of the sewer pipe running to Parker’s Wharf.

The remains of what used to be the Old Ferry Wharf at the foot of Old Ferry Road still remain visible, particularly at a very low tide – seen here the morning after Hurricane Juan:

Institutionalizing Eugenics: Custody, Class, Gender And Education In Nova Scotia’s Response To The “Feeble-Minded”, 1890-1931

It’s obvious to me that the eugenicists didn’t stop after 1931, that it was used in ways that were politically motivated seems just as obvious. It was preceded by a few generations of “stirpiculture“, which just so happened to make an appearance in an institutionalized form in Nova Scotia in time for “confederation” leading to many subsequent expansions, including at the time of Dartmouth’s incorporation. Howe hinted towards this possibility in his speech at Dartmouth, “The lunatic asylum of course we must keep up, because Archibald may want it by-and-by to put Tupper and Henry into at the close of the elections“, by no means the only example of such statements. That 1868-69 featured the highest number of admission to the “Hospital for the insane” since its inception in 1859 adds further context.

I often think of this whenever I hear a member of Canada’s ruling caste — those who we are supposed to believe have the best interests of their subjects at heart — talk about “mental health” within the context of the current political environment, where they’re preparing every avenue, most especially health and education, for the application of philosophical intoxication against those who resist any of their totalitarian actions and inclinations.

It certainly brings clarity as to why we have such a highly political and ideologically focused monopoly health care system devoid of private payments or hospitals, let alone private insurers for primary care. It’s a level of control that wouldn’t have been so easy to achieve with the patchwork of jurisdictions, imbued with some measure of self government, which we enjoyed previous to this current “amalgamated” regime of hyper-centralization in terms of the administrative state.

I’m sure they’re just looking out for all of our best interests, now.


“Between 1890 and 1927 hundreds of Nova Scotian children and adults were identified as either feeble-minded or mentally deficient through investigations conducted by physicians and philanthropists in the province. The earliest of these studies were not commissioned by the provincial government but instead reflected the middle-class internalization of the eugenic discourse. Reformers, drawn often from medical, religious, educational, and philanthropic vocations, sought with ever-increasing alacrity to respond to perceived social problems, such as poverty, prostitution, venereal disease, and alcoholism, with a scientific solution. The scientific solution that they embraced was eugenics.

Eugenic ideology and programs rose to popularity in Europe and North America at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century. Driven by social anxiety and the medicalization of reproduction, eugenic theory expressed the concerns of the middle classes that those they deemed less fit on the basis of socio-economic class, education or heredity, were reproducing at a higher rate than the ‘desirable’ segments of the population. The application of eugenic theory was shaped by cultural assumptions about gender, class and race which resulted in the same principles finding different expression in different areas across the globe.

This dissertation seeks to understand how local circumstances shaped the Nova Scotian understanding of eugenics and its application. It examines the manner in which Nova Scotian physicians and philanthropists, with strong ties to both New England and Britain, participated in the transnational eugenic discourse through both professional and popular publications and organizations. Overall it argues that the expression of eugenics in Nova Scotia culminated in legislation that enforced the inspection, segregation and institutionalization of individuals who were assessed as feeble-minded. In doing so it also calls attention to the need to recognize outcomes other than sexual sterilization as legitimate expressions of eugenic policy. Subsequently the influential role played by regional circumstances in shaping what was considered an acceptable eugenic outcome as well as how eugenic policy was sought and implemented is examined. In investigating what reformers understood to be eugenic, and conversely what they considered dysgenic, a complex discourse surrounding the health of populations and reliant on ideas of gender, race, and class is revealed.”

Baker, Leslie Elaine. Institutionalizing Eugenics: Custody, Class, Gender And Education In Nova Scotia’s Response To The “Feeble-Minded”, 1890-1931. University of Saskatchewan, Feb. 2015. https://harvest.usask.ca/bitstream/handle/10388/ETD-2015-01-1934/BAKER-DISSERTATION.pdf

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