A fairly accurate early map of Nova Scotia from some time previous to the founding of Halifax. Chibouctou is shown on the Dartmouth side of the harbor, opposite McNabs Island and Geroge’s Island. Shubenacadie River is seen to the north of the settlement. I haven’t found any substantial confirmation that the Dartmouth side is where the settlement known as Chibouctou was actually located, but there are a number of maps (many, but not all, seem to be derivative). More about Chibouctou: “Carte particulière de la coste d’Accadie” 16?? (<1700) https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b53089778x

Baye d Chibouctou, later Halifax Harbor. McNabs Island can be seen in the middle of the harbor with George’s Island north, and to the north east is Sault aux saumone, or salmon jump – Dartmouth cove, and the Shubenacadie River. “Carte de la côte Sud de l’Acadie” 16?? (<1700) https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b53089646d

More time is spent describing Dartmouth here than in many other similar books of its kind, yet another instance of 1756 being given as the date of Dartmouth’s “destruction” at the hands of the Mi’kmaq. The timing of the “attack”, 1756, in regards to the delay of the institution of representative government at Halifax until 1758; the requirement of a population of 25 qualified electors in 1757 in order to qualify for a representative in the legislature, which become 50 qualified electors by 1758; all these points, when put together, have always struck me as curious. Earlier events, such as the arrival and settlement of various “wastrels” as well as the “King’s bad bargains” has led me to question whether it was the Mi’kmaq who were involved in …

A Plan of National Colonization Read More…

“Contains chiefly correspondence of British proprietor and governor of Nova Scotia Thomas Temple and his nephew John Nelson concerning land claims in Nova Scotia and the French role in Canada” Temple, Thomas, 1614-1674. Thomas Temple correspondence concerning Nova Scotia, 1656-1768. Cobham, Sir Richard Temple, viscount, 1669?-1749. A.L.s. to John Nelson; London, 14 Oct 16?6. MS Am 1249 (56). Houghton Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. https://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL.HOUGH:33504655?n=1

The term “proprietor” was used in two distinct senses in the American colonies. In order fully to understand the nature and the scope of the present study, therefore, it is necessary at the outset to distinguish these two usages. “The more familiar usage of the word “proprietor” is with reference to the proprietary provinces. The “Lords Proprietary” or “Lords Proprietors,” whether single persons or groups of grantees, were created and constituted by the crown on the model of the Palatinate of Durham. They held both territorial and governmental powers and like “the feudal seigneurs of the middle ages, became, or aimed to become, the lords of great colonial territories to which they were to stand as to any fief or estate of land.” The institution, in this sense, …

The town proprietors of the New England Colonies: a study of their development, organization, activities and controversies, 1620-1770 Read More…

Stirling, William Alexander, Earl Of, 1567 Or , Cartographer, and William Alexander Stirling. New England, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland. [London: Publisher not indicated, ?, 1624] Map. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <www.loc.gov/item/2018590035/>

Though not explicitly mentioned since it hadn’t yet been claimed or founded as such, parts of Nova Scotia are included in the first charter of Virginia, the second colony of which (otherwise known as the Popham Colony) was defined as the land lying between 38°N and 45°N latitude. Hence, Thomas Jefferson’s notes on cessions of Nova Scotia from Virginia (A grant of Nova Scotia to Sir William Alexander. 1621, Sep. 10-20., A grant of the soil, barony, and domains of Nova Scotia to Sir Wm. Alexander of Minstrie. 1625, July 12) in his Notes on the State of Virginia. JAMES, by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c. WHEREAS our loving and well-disposed Subjects, Sir Thorn as Gales, and …

The First Charter of Virginia (1606) Read More…

Since this is posted to the internet, and it has been indexed by Google, it is a little late to prevent circulation as requested at the beginning of the document. Definitely worth a read if you’d like to gain a greater understanding about this oft-neglected part of early Nova Scotian history. Reid, John G. “The Lost Colony of New Scotland and its Successors, to 1670” Saint Mary’s University Conference, March 26-27, 2004, http://www.mceas.org/Reid.pdf

“Disaster is frequently the parent of legislation. In surveying the long history of Nova Scotia, we find this saying particularly true.” “The first recorded instance of illness in Nova Scotia is the account of Champlain of an outbreak of scurvy at Port Royal in 1606. His group of settlers had spent the winter of 1605 at St. Croix Island, where, of a group of seventy-nine, forty-four died of scurvy. In Port Royal in the following year twelve of forty-five died.” “Of all the epidemics, that of smallpox carried with it the greatest destruction and terror. In 1694 an epidemic was present among the [Indigenous people] of Acadia, but we have no knowledge of the number dying as a result. We may be sure it was large, however…” “There …

The Development of Public Health in Nova Scotia Read More…

From The Story of Dartmouth, by John P. Martin: Dartmouth, long before the European explorers and colonizing forces, had a 7,000 year history of occupation by the Mi’kmaq people. The Mi’kmaq annual cycle of seasonal movement; living in dispersed interior camps during the winter, and larger coastal communities during the summer; meant there were no permanent communities in the Euro-centric sense, but Dartmouth was clearly a place frequented by Mi’kmaq people for a very long time. Whether it was the Springtime smelt spawning in March; the harvesting of spawning herring, gathering eggs and hunting geese in April; the Summer months when the sea provided cod and shellfish, and coastal breezes that provided relief from irritants like blackflies and mosquitos, or during the autumn and its eel season; Dartmouth …

Pre-English Settlement Read More…