“This paper, read in part before the Nova Scotia Historical Society on March 18, 1898, is an attempt to supply a missing chapter in Canadian history — a sombre and unattractive chapter, it may be, but necessary nevertheless to the completeness of our records. If instances given seem too numerous, it must be remembered that the scepticism of many of the best informed Provincials as to the presence at any time of Negro slaves on the soil of Canada has challenged the production, on the part of the author, of more repeated facts than he would otherwise have deemed necessary. …

“The Slave in Canada” More…

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Order of Committee of Privy Council. Referring back to the Council of Trade and Plantations reports of 21st March and 14th May upon Col. Dunbar’s proposal for settling Nova Scotia etc. Their Lordships observing that the first report was made upon a supposition that Irish and Palatine families were all immediately to settle at or near Annapolis and Canco, and the latter that they would settle only between the rivers Kennebeck and St. Croix, and their Lordships being of opinion that it would prove of great service to H.M. and the strengthening his Government in Nova Scotia if settlements were …

America and West Indies Colonial Papers: October 1729, 21-31 More…

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Minute of Articles proposed by Capt. Breedon on the part of Col. Thos. Temple, Lieut. Gen. of Nova Scotia, to Lord Fienes and others, the Company of Adventures, for settling a trade in those parts; the course first designed by the adventurers not being thought convenient. The Company to advance a stock of 10,000l. Col. Temple to be allowed 500l. per annum, with other privileges, which, with those to be enjoyed by the Company, are detailed. It is desired by the Company that a treaty may be forthwith concluded with the French Ambassador, for settlement of all pretences to Nova …

America and West Indies Colonial Papers: January 1659 More…

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Mr. Popple to Lt. Governor Armstrong. Acknow ledges letters of 27th July and 24th Dec. 1726. Continues: — My Lords Commissioners having at present under their consideration the immediate settlement of the Province of Nova Scotia, you may expect shortly to hear from them upon this subject. [C.O. 218, 2. p. 56.] Ar. Gambell to the Council of Trade and Plantations. Some reasons and proposuals for settleing the main coast of Nova Scotia, with all imaginable speed etc. Urges importance of the Fishery, and the immediate building of forts at the three most commodious harbours,—Port Rossway, Cape Sambra and Owles …

America and West Indies Colonial Papers: June 1727 More…

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Statement of the case of Thomas Temple and William Crowne, and how they became proprietors of Nova Scotia. In 1656, when the Lord de La Tour was compounding with Cromwell to get his country of Nova Scotia again, but not being able to pay what Cromwell required, he requested Temple and Crowne to undertake it for him, and so by the advice of Sir Orlando Bridgeman, La Tour by deed conveyed all his right and title in Nova Scotia, with all his profits and privileges, to said Temple and Crowne and their heirs and assigns for ever, the consideration to …

America and West Indies Colonial Papers: June 1661 More…

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Council of Trade and Plantations to Committee of Privy Council. Representation upon petition of Mrs. Campbell. Continue : We have discoursed hereupon with Coll. Philips, H.M. Governour of Nova Scotia, and likewise with Mrs. Campbell the petitioner, who hath laid before us several papers and affidavits relating to her title to the aforesaid lands and quit rents in Nova Scotia, from whence it appears, That in 1631 the Most Christian King Lewis XIII gave the Government of Nova Scotia or Accadie to Monsieur Charles de St. Estienne, Sieur de la Tour, grandfather to the petitioner, who had Letters Patents granted …

America and West Indies Colonial Papers: October 1733, 16-31 More…

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Col. Thos. Temple to [Lord Fienes and Company]. Has received their letter and cargo by Capt. Middleton. Acknowledges their goodness in taking him and his affairs into their protection. The produce of the cargo, with a suitable profit, shall be sent to London as soon as trade will permit. Capt. Middleton has explored the country in a barque belonging to Col. Temple, with good pilots, but is now dangerously sick. Is emboldened to express his thoughts and knowledge of “this business.” Nova Scotia very considerable to England, from the staple commodities it may produce; the chief, fishing. Furs, all sorts …

America and West Indies Colonial Papers: December 1658 More…

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“Disaster is frequently the parent of legislation. In surveying the long history of Nova Scotia, we find this saying particularly true.” “The first recorded instance of illness in Nova Scotia is the account of Champlain of an outbreak of scurvy at Port Royal in 1606. His group of settlers had spent the winter of 1605 at St. Croix Island, where, of a group of seventy-nine, forty-four died of scurvy. In Port Royal in the following year twelve of forty-five died.” “Of all the epidemics, that of smallpox carried with it the greatest destruction and terror. In 1694 an epidemic was …

The Development of Public Health in Nova Scotia More…

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“Long before this, the thirteen transports had reached port. Of all their passengers only one had died on the long, rough voyage, and that was somebody’s child. Thanks to the humane care of the Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plantation, the ships had been fitted with ventilators, then a new idea, and the result was most gratifying. The expedition was evidently well managed. Very different is the tale of the poor German emigrants procured by the unscrupulous Mr. Dick of Rotterdam at a guinea a head. They were taken out of the ships to die, many of them on Dartmouth …

Ab Urbe Condita More…

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“Because post-Revolutionary American government resembled the practices of the corporation colonies, proprietary governments often have been neglected. Yet, the proprietary form represented an equally plausible approach to delegating governance authority. Englishmen interested in the settlements viewed the invention of the proprietary form as an improvement over the corporation colony; proprietaries achieved real settlement success. Nova Scotia (1621), Avalon (1623), Maryland (1632), and Maine (1639), as well as Carolina (1663), New York and New Jersey (1664), Pennsylvania (1681), and East Jersey (1682), all followed the proprietary form. The coexistence of settlements with authority delegated through corporate governance practices and those with …

English Settlement and Local Governance More…

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“…the first court of judicature, administering the English common law, within what is now the Dominion of Canada, for at Annapolis Royal, in Nova Scotia, on the 20th day of April, 1721 (0. T.), His Excellency, Governor Phillips, and his council, after full advisement, adopted a resolution constituting themselves a court which was to administer justice “by the same manner and proceedings as the general court” in Virginia. It is a far cry from Nova Scotia to Virginia-and more so in the early years of the eighteenth century than now, but nevertheless for several decades of that century the “the …

Virginia and Nova Scotia: An Historical Note More…

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“The new governor’s commission gave him power to establish the accepted institutions of civil government: a council, a legislative assembly, courts, and a judiciary. It accorded him the power of the civil executive to defend the colony, exercize the king’s prerogative of mercy, administer public funds, make grants and assurances of lands, and establish fairs and markets. Most significantly, Cornwallis’ commission, tested 6 May 1749, gave authority to the governor “with the advice and consent of our said Council and Assembly or the Major part of them respectively . . .” in Nova Scotia to make, constitute and ordain Laws, …

“As Near as May Be Agreeable to the Laws of this Kingdom”: Legal Birthright and Legal Baggage at Chebucto, 1749 More…

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“Answer to the Ambassador of France, or rather Mons. Le Bourne, his claim to Acadia and Nova Scotia.” The claims of England to Pentagoet, St. John’s, Port Royal, and La Have, as first possessed by the subjects of that King, and granted to Sir Wm. Alexander and La Tour. The hostile proceedings of Le Bourne in August last, in forcibly taking possession of La Have ; his barbarous usage of the English, turning them upon an island to live upon grass and wade in the water for lobsters to keep them alive, and imprisoning them at Rochelle. That Nova Scotia …

America and West Indies Colonial Papers: February 1662 More…

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This study of a lake in Lunenburg County gives us a good idea of Nova Scotia’s historical climate, vegetation and habitation potential since the last Ice Age, and the animation below illustrates some of the changes noted in the following paper abstract. Abstract: A high-resolution, multi-proxy lake sediment record was used to establish the timing of Holocene environmental change in Canoran Lake, southwest Nova Scotia, Canada. Canoran Lake is a small, shallow (11 m) lake with two ephemeral inlets and an outlet. The site was deglaciated at ca. 15,300 cal (calibrated) year BP and elevated %C values indicate the establishment …

Post-glacial climate change and its effect on a shallow dimictic lake in Nova Scotia, Canada More…

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It has been the Mi’kmaq who have inhabited these lands, for at least 11,000 years if we are to base settlement on radiocarbon dating and archaeological remains (such as the site near Debert). No discussion on the deinstitutionalization of Dartmouth can occur without recognition of, without reflection on, the colonization of Miꞌkmaꞌki, part of the Wabanaki Confederacy, the ongoing genocides by European Settlers, a region that had its own people, culture, and system of governance, pre-contact. For an idea of what the region looked like geographically and climactically since glacial times, check this out. The following is a sample of …

Punamu’kwati’jk: Salmon Place More…

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