From John Adams to Boston Patriot, 12 August 1809

“…The English made their first efforts against the northern states. There they were able to do nothing but shew their ill will. They then fell upon the middle states. Here they succeeded no better than before. Now they have concerted their plans and directed their forces against the southern states. Georgia and South Carolina are at the southern extremity of the continent, and have so few white people, and are embarrassed with so many black people], that the English have gained more advantage, as they think. But it will appear in the end, that the principal advantage will be, stealing a multitude of black people], and sending them to the West India islands for sale, and plundering other effects for the private emolument of some of the officers. The militia of the southern states have not yet been practised to war, and are, I suppose, strangers to discipline. But the militia of the northern and middle states have had a good deal of experience, and are very good troops: and it will not be long before the militia of the southern states will be as well disciplined as any.

I believe with you, that France has no desire to recover Canada, in order to hold it. She may wish to have it made the fourteenth State in the confederation, and in this the other thirteen would agree, as they might with you, that Nova Scotia might be the fifteenth. It can do no good to leave either of those provinces in the hands of any European power. It will only lay a foundation for future wars….”

“From John Adams to Boston Patriot, 12 August 1809,” Founders Online, National Archives,